Thursday, 12 July 2012


(I am going to publish a question bank for EME-102/EME-202 of 1st yr. MTU; Greater Noida. Some pages from the book .......Subhankar Karmakar)
1)      Explain the principle of Super-position.

Ans: The principle of superposition states that “The effect of a force on a body does not change and remains same if we add or subtract any system which is in equilibrium.”
In the fig 4 a, a force P is applied at point A in a beam, where as in the fig 4 b, force P is applied at point A and a force system in equilibrium which is added at point B. Principle of super position says that both will produce the same effect.

2)      What is “Force-Couple system?”

Ans: When a force is required to transfer from a point A to point B, we can transfer the force directly without changing its magnitude and direction but along with the moment of force about point B.

As a result of parallel transfer a system is obtained which is always a combination of a force and a moment or couple. This system consists of a force and a couple at a point is known as Force-Couple system.
      In fig 5 a, a force P acts on a bar at point A, now at point B we introduce a system of forces  in equilibrium (fig 5 b), hence according to principle of superposition there is no change in effect of the original system. Now we can reduce the downward force P at point A and upward force P at point B as a couple of magnitude Pxd at point B (fig 5 c).

3) What do you understand by Equivalent force systems?

Ans: Two different force systems will be equivalent if they can be reduced to the same force-couple system at a given point. So, we can say that two force systems acting on the same rigid body will be equivalent if the sums of forces or resultant and sums of the moments about a point are equal.

4)      What is orthogonal or perpendicular resolution of a force?

Ans: The resolution of a force into two components which are mutually perpendicular to each other along X-axis and Y-axis is called orthogonal resolution of a force.
If a force F acts on an object at an angle θ with the positive X-axis, then its component along X-axis is Fx = Fcosθ, and that along Y-axis is Fy = Fsinθ

5) What is oblique or non-perpendicular resolution of a force?

Ans: When a force is required to be resolved in to two directions which are not perpendiculars to each other the resolution is called oblique or Non-perpendicular resolution of a force.

       FOA = (P sin β)/ sin (α +β)
 FOB = (P sin α)/ sin (α +β)

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