**TRUSS :**

Truss is a kind of framed structure made of entirely by rigid metallic rods joined by pin. The rods are called as Links or Linkages and the pins are called as joints. Their primary goal is to support the applied loads or we can say they are primarily load bearing structures. We often encounter trusses in our daily life as trusses are used to support roofs of various kinds of industrial sheds. Trusses are used as poles carrying high tension electricity.

**LINK/ LINKAGES :**

A link is a rigid rod which can bear any external load applied on it. A link can bear two types of forces.

**COMPRESSIVE FORCES :**

When the external forces applied on the link or rod tries to decrease the length of the rod, then they are called as External Compressive Forces. A truss in equilibrium counters this compressive force by inducing an internal force, equal and opposite the externally applied force. The internal force thus induced balancing the external compressive force is named as Internal Compressive Forces. Generally Compressive Forces are considered as negative in truss analysis.

**TENSILE FORCES :**

When external loads applied on a link try to increase the length of the link, we call them External Tensile Loads. To neutral the tensile load applied on a link, an equal but opposite internal force is generated named as Internal Tensile forces. Tensile forces are generally considered as positive internal forces.

**THE SIMPLEST TRUSS:**

A triangular shaped truss made of three linkages and three joints is the simplest type of truss. As it is the simplest geometric shape where there is no change in shape with the application of forces at the joints if the length of rods/ linkages remain unchanged / constant.

**MAXWELL'S TRUSS EQUATION:**

To distinguish between "statically determinate structure" and "statically indeterminate structure" Maxwell formulated an equation involving the number of linkages (

**m**) and number of joints (

**j**).

The trusses which satisfies the equation,

**m = 2j - 3**

are statically determinate structures and named as "

**Perfect Trusses**".

If

**m > 2j - 3**, then the number of linkages are more than required, hence, called as "

**Redundant Trusses**".

Where as if

**m < 2j - 3**for any truss, then the number of linkages are less than that of a perfect truss. These kinds of trusses are called as "

**Deficient Trusses**".

**ASSUMPTIONS CONSIDERED WHILE ANALYZING TRUSSES :**

While analyzing trusses, to simplify the analysis we often consider certain assumptions. The purpose of these assumptions are the simplification of a complex problems. The assumptions are

(i) The links are perfectly rigid bodies, ie there occurs no change in the dimensions of the links.

(ii) The pin joints are perfectly smooth, ie there is no friction in the each and every joints.

(iii) The mass and weights of the links are so small compare to the magnitudes of the applied forces, that for truss analysis we shall neglect them. It means the links are massless as well as weightless.

(iv) The cross-sections and material of the links are uniform by nature.

(v) The external loads are only applied on a joint in the truss, whenever we shall place any external load, we must place it one of the joints in the truss.

(vi) Stress in each member is constant along its length.

The objective of analyzing the trusses is to determine the reactions and member forces. The methods used for carrying out the truss analysis with the equations of equilibrium and by considering only parts of the structure through analyzing its free body diagram to solve the unknowns.

**Method of Joints**

In the joints method, a virtual cut is made around a joint and the cut portion is isolated as a Free Body Diagram (FBD). Using the equilibrium equations of ∑ F

_{x}= 0 and ∑ F

_{y}= 0, the unknown member forces could be solve. It is assumed that all members are joined together in the form of an ideal pin, and that all forces are in tension (+ve) of reactions.

An imaginary section may be completely passed around a joint in the truss. The joint has become a free body in equilibrium under the forces applied to it. The equations ∑ H = 0 and ∑ V = 0 may be applied to the joint to determine the unknown forces in members meeting there. It is evident that no more than two unknowns can be determined at a joint with these two equations.

*Figure 1*: A simple truss model supported by pinned and roller support at its end. Each triangle has the same length, L and it is equilateral where degree of angle, θ is 60° on every angle. The support reactions, R

_{a}and R

_{c}can be determine by taking a point of moment either at point A or point C, whereas H

_{a}= 0 (no other horizontal force).

Here are some simple guidelines for this method of truss analysis:

- Firstly draw the Free Body Diagram (FBD),
- Solve the reactions of the given structure,
- Select a joint with a minimum number of unknown (not more than 2) and analyze it with ∑ F
_{x}= 0 and ∑ F_{y}= 0, - Proceed to the rest of the joints and again concentrating on joints that have very minimal of unknowns,
- Check member forces at unused joints with ∑ F
_{x}= 0 and ∑ F_{y}= 0, - Tabulate the member forces whether it is in tension (+ve) or compression (-ve) reaction.

*Figure 2*: The figure showing 3 selected joints, at B, C, and E. The forces in each member can be determine from any joint or point. The best way to start by selecting the easiest joint like joint C where the reaction R

_{c}is already obtained and with only 2 unknown, forces of F

_{CB}and F

_{CD}. Both can be evaluate with ∑ F

_{x}= 0 and ∑ F

_{y}= 0 rules. At joint E, there are 3 unknown, forces of F

_{EA}, F

_{EB}and F

_{ED}, which may lead to more complex solution compare to 2 unknown values. For checking purposes, joint B is selected to shown that the equation of ∑ F

_{x}is equal to ∑ F

_{y}which leads to

*zero*value, ∑ F

_{x}= ∑ F

_{y}= 0. Each value of the member’s condition should be indicate clearly as whether it is in tension (+ve) or in compression (-ve) state.

* (

*Trigonometric Functions*:

Taking an angle between member x and z…

- Cos θ = x / z
- Sin θ = y / z
- Tan θ = y / x )

**Method of Sections**

If only a few member forces of a truss are needed, the quickest way to find these forces is by the method of sections. In this method, an imaginary cutting line called a section is drawn through a stable and determinate truss. Thus, a section subdivides the truss into two separate parts. Since the entire truss is in equilibrium, any part of it must also be in equilibrium. Either of the two parts of the truss can be considered and the three equations of equilibrium ∑ F

_{x}= 0, ∑ F

_{y}= 0, and ∑ M = 0 can be applied to solve for member forces.

*Figure 3*: Using the same model of simple truss, the details would be the same as previous figure with 2 different supports profile. Unlike the joint method, here we only interested in finding the value of forces for member BC, EC, and ED.

Few simple guidelines of section truss analysis:

- Pass a section through a maximum of 3 members of the truss, 1 of which is the desired member where it is dividing the truss into 2 completely separate parts,
- At 1 part of the truss, take moments about the point (at a joint) where the 2 members intersect and solve for the member force, using ∑ M = 0,
- Solve the other 2 unknowns by using the equilibrium equation for forces, using ∑ F
_{x}= 0 and ∑ F_{y}= 0.

*Figure 4*: A virtual cut is introduce through the only required members which is along member BC, EC, and ED. Firstly, the support reactions of R

_{a}and R

_{d}should be determine. Again a good judgment is require to solve this problem where the easiest part would be consider either on the left hand side or the right hand side. Taking moment at joint E (virtual pint) on clockwise for the whole RHS part would be much easier compare to joint C (the LHS part). Then, either joint D or C can be consider as point of moment, or else using the joint method to find the member forces for F

_{CB}, F

_{CE}, and F

_{DE}. Note: Each value of the member’s condition should be indicate clearly as whether it is in tension (+ve) or in compression (-ve) state.

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