Q: WHAT DO YOU UNDERSTAND BY THE TERM "FORCE"? WHAT IS THE EFFECT OF FORCE ON A PARTICLE AND A RIGID BODY? EXPLAIN WITH SUITABLE EXAMPLES.Answer:
FORMAL DEFINITION:A FORCE is that which can cause an object with mass to ACCELERATE. Force has both MAGNITUDE and DIRECTION, making it a vector quantity. According to Newton's second law, an object with constant mass will accelerate in proportion to the net force acting upon it and in INVERSE PROPORTION TO ITS MASS (M). An equivalent formulation is that the net force on an object is equal to the RATE OF CHANGE OF MOMENTUM it experiences. Forces acting on three-dimensional objects may also cause them to rotate or deform, or result in a change in pressure. The tendency of a force to cause angular acceleration about an axis is called TORQUE. Deformation and pressure are the result of stress forces within an object.
EXPLANATION OF MECHANICAL FORCE AND IT'S EFFECT ON A PARTICLE:
CHANGE IN POSITION:
To know force well, first we have to understand what do we mean by Change. What does it mean when we say the position of the body has been changed? Whenever we find the state of object becomes different than that of the same object before some time say Δt, then we say that there exists a change in the state of the object. Suppose the change occurs in the position of the body. But to find the initial position of a body, we need a co-ordinate system.
THE CAUSE OF CHANGE:
It has been seen that to induced a change or to make a change in the position of an object we must have to change the energy possess by the body. To transfer energy into the object we shall have to apply FORCE on the body. Therefore Force is the agency that makes a change in position of a body.
THE CONCLUSION: GALILEO'S LAW OF INERTIA OR NEWTON'S FIRST LAW OF MOTION.
So, if there is no force on an object the position of the object won't change with respect to time. It means if a body at rest would remain at rest and a body at uniform motion would remain in a steady motion. This law is known as Galileo's Law of Inertia or Newton's first law of motion.
WHAT IS A FORCE SYSTEM? CAN WE CLASSIFY FORCE SYSTEMS?
A force system may be defined as a system where more than one force act on the body. It means that whenever multiple forces act on a body, we term the forces as a force system. We can further classify force system into different sub-categories depending upon the nature of forces and the point of application of the forces. Almost any system of known forces can be resolved into a single force called a resultant force or simply a Resultant. The resultant is a representative force which has the same effect on the body as the group of forces it replaces. (A couple is an exception to this) It, as one single force, can represent any number of forces and is very useful when resolving multiple groups of forces. It is important to note that for any given system of forces, there is only one resultant.
Different types of force system:
(i) COPLANAR FORCES:
If two or more forces rest on a plane, then they are called coplanar forces. There are many ways in which forces can be manipulated. It is often easier to work with a large, complicated system of forces by reducing it an ever decreasing number of smaller problems. This is called the "resolution" of forces or force systems. This is one way to simplify what may otherwise seem to be an impossible system of forces acting on a body. Certain systems of forces are easier to resolve than others. Coplanar force systems have all the forces acting in in one plane. They may be concurrent, parallel, non-concurrent or non-parallel. All of these systems can be resolved by using graphic statics or algebra.
(ii) CONCURRENT FORCES:
A concurrent coplanar force system is a system of two or more forces whose lines of action ALL intersect at a common point. However, all of the individual vectors might not actually be in contact with the common point. These are the most simple force systems to resolve with any one of many graphical or algebraic options. If the line of actions of two or more forces passes through a certain point simultaneously then they are called concurrent forces. concurrent forces may or may not be coplanar.
(iii) LIKE FORCES:
A parallel coplanar force system consists of two or more forces whose lines of action are ALL parallel. This is commonly the situation when simple beams are analyzed under gravity loads. These can be solved graphically, but are combined most easily using algebraic methods. If the lines of action of two or more forces are parallel to each other, they are called parallel forces and if their directions are same, then they are called LIKE FORCES.
(iv) UNLIKE FORCES:
If the parallel forces are such that their directions are opposite to each other, then they are termed as "UNLIKE FORCE".
(v) NON COPLANAR FORCES:
The last illustration is of a "non-concurrent and non-parallel system". This consists of a number of vectors that do not meet at a single point and none of them are parallel. These systems are essentially a jumble of forces and take considerable care to resolve.